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School-Based Mental Health Services: A Select Bibliography
School-Based Mental Health Services: A Select Bibliography

(Updated through October 2006)

School-based mental health services are provided by a wide range of professionals -- counselors, psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, and psychiatrists. Their services include prevention-focused activities to create a healthy school environment, selective interventions with groups of students whose circumstances place them at higher risk for emotional or behavioral health problems, as well as diagnosis and treatment of individual students with specific health needs. Areas of particular interest within the school-based mental health field include school safety, prevention initiatives, substance abuse treatment, and financing mental health services.


Adelman HS, Taylor L. Mental health in schools and public health. Public Health Report. 2006 May-Jun;121(3):294-8.

Adelman HS, Taylor L, Bradley B, Lewis KD. Mental health in schools: expanded opportunities for school nurses. J Sch Nursing. 1997; 13(3):6-12.

Adelman HS. Clinical psychology: Beyond psychopathology and clinical interventions. Clin Psychol: Sci and Practice 1995; 2(1):28-44.

Adelman HS. Restructuring education support services & integrating community resources: Beyond the full service school model. School Psych Review 1996; 25(4):431-445.

Adelman HS, Taylor L. Mental health facets of the school-based health center movement: Need and opportunity for research and development. J Ment Health Adm 1991; 18(3):272-283.

Adelman HS, Taylor L. School-based mental health: Toward a comprehensive approach. J Ment Health Adm 1993; 20(1):32-45.

Adelman HS, Taylor L. System reform to address barriers to learning: Beyond school-linked services and full service schools. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1997; 67(3):408-421.

Adelsheim S, Carrillo K, Coletta E. Developing school mental health in a rural state. The New Mexico school mental health initiative. Child & Adolescent Psych. Clinics of N. Am, 2001; 10(1):151-159.

Adelson SL. Psychiatric public health opportunities in school-based health centers. Adolescent psychiatry: Development and clinical studies. Annals of the American Society for Adolescent Psychiatry 1999; 24:75-89.

Armbruster P. The administration of school-based mental health services. Child & Adolescent Psych. Clinics of N. Am,2002; 11(1):23-41.

Armbruster P, Lichtman J. Are school based mental health services effective? Evidence from 36 inner city schools. Community Mental Health Journal. 1999; 35(6):493-504.

Armbruster P, Andrews E, Couenhoven J, et al. Collision or collaboration? School-based health services meet managed care. Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19 (2):179-198.

Armbruster P, Gerstein SH, Fallan T. Bridging the gap between service need and service utilization: A school-based mental health program. Community Mental Health Journal 1997; 33(3):199-211.

Baggish R, Hardcastle S. Schools and mental health: an evolving partnership. Conn Med. 2005 Oct; 69(9):535-9.

Barker LA, Adelman H. Mental health and help-seeking among ethnic minority adolescents. Journal Adolesc 1994; 17(3):251-263.

Bearinger L, Blum R. Adolescent medicine and psychiatry: Trends, issues, and needs. Psychiatr Ann 1987; 17(12):775-779.

Blais R, Breton JJ, Fournier M, St-Georges M, Berthiaume C. Are mental health services for children distributed according to needs? Can J Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;48(3):176-86.

Bruns EJ, Walrath C, Glass-Siegal M, Weist MD. School-based mental health services in Baltimore: association with school climate and special education referrals. Behav Modif. 2004 Jul; 28(4):491-512.

Burns B, Costello EJ, Angold A, Tweed D. Children’s Mental health service use across service sectors. Health Affairs, 1995; 14:147-159.

Conoley JC, Conoley CW. Collaboration for child adjustment: Issues for school- and clinic-based child psychologists. Special section: Clinical child psychology: Perspectives on adolescent therapy. J Consul Clin Psychol 1991; 59(6):821-829.

Cook ET, Greenberg MT, Kusche CA. The relations between emotional understanding, intellectual functioning, and disruptive behavior in elementary-school-aged children. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 1994; 22(2):205-19.

Costello-Wells B, McFarland L, Reed J, Walton K. School-based mental health clinics. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2003 Apr-Jun;16(2):60-70.

Cuffe SP, Waller JL, Addy CL, McKeown RE, Jackson KL, Moloo J, Garrison CZ. A longitudinal study of adolescent mental health service use. J of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 2001; 28(10):1-11.

DeSocio J, Hootman J. Children’s mental health and school success. J School Nursing. 2004 Aug; 20(4):189-96.

Esman AH (Ed); Flaherty LT (Ed); et al. Adolescent psychiatry: development and clinical studies, Vol 24. Annals of the American Society for Adolescent Psychiatry. (pp.75-89). Hillsdale, NJ US: The Analytic Press, Inc. viii, 1999.

Eggert LL, Thompson EA, Herting JR, et al. Prevention research program: Reconnecting at-risk youth. Special Issue: Mental health nursing 2000: Issues and challenges. Issues in Ment Health Nurs 1994; 15(2):107-135.

Evans, SW. Mental health services in schools: utilization, effectiveness, and consent. Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19(2):165-178.

Evans SW, Axelrod J, Langberg JM. Efficacy of a school-based treatment program for middle school youth with ADHD: pilot data. Behav Modif 2004 Jul; 28(4):528-47.

Farie AM, Cowen EL, Smith M. The development and implementation of a rural consortium program to provide early, preventive school mental health services. Community Ment Health J 1986; 22(2):94-103.

Fertman CI, Ross JL. Differences in the use of a school mental health program in secondary schools. Am J Health Behav. 2003 Mar-Apr;27(2):146-55.

Finney JW, Weist MD. Behavioral Assessment of Children and Adolescents. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1992; 39(3):369-378.

Flaherty LT, Weist MD, Warner BS. School-based mental health services in the United States: History, current models, and needs. Community Ment Health J 1996; 32(4):341-52.

Grier R, Morris L, Taylor L. Assessment strategies for school-based mental health counseling. Journal of School Health. 2001; 71(9):476-9.

Greiner M, Nickerson G, and Rosenberg S. State policy context for school-based health centers with special focus on development of mental health and dental health services. Washington, DC: Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2001.

Guernsey BP. The Denver school-based clinics: Identifying and reaching youth at-risk. In: Morton CJ, Wilkerson D, and Patterson D, eds. Promoting Family Health in the 1990's: Strategies for Public Health Social Work. Washington, DC: Maternal and Child Health Clearinghouse, 1993.

Harrison TW. Adolescent homosexuality and concerns regarding disclosure. J Sch Health. 2003 Mar;73(3):107-12.

Haynes NM. Addressing students' social and emotional needs: the role of mental health teams in schools. J Health Soc Policy. 2002;16(1-2):109-23.

Harold RD, Harold, NB. School-based clinics: a response to the physical and mental health needs of adolescents. Health & Social Work 1993; 18(1):65-74.

Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Kosterman R, Abbott R, Hill KG. Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153(3)226-34.

Hendren RL, Weisen RB, Orley J. Mental health programs in schools. Geneva: World Health Organization, Division of Mental Health 1994.

Horwitz SM, Leaf PJ, Leventhal JM, et al. Identification and management of psychosocial and developmental problems in community-based, primary care pediatric practices. Pediatrics 1992; 89(3):480-485.

How one community provides crisis intervention/mental health services. Hospital Security and Safety Management 1995; 16(5):13-14.

Irigon FF, Sarno M, Sera J, et al. Child Development Centers Program: An effective school-based mental health service. Child Welfare 1981; 60(8):569-577.

Jepson L, Juszczak L, Fisher M. Mental health care in a high school-based health service. Adolescence 1998; 33(129):1-15.

Juszczak L, Melinkovich P, Kaplan D. Use of health and mental health services by adolescents across multiple delivery sites. J Adolesc Health. 2003 Jun;32(6 Suppl):108-18.

Kataoka SH, Stein BD, Jaycox LH, Wong M, Escudero P, Tu W, Zaragoza C, Fink A. A school-based mental health program for traumatized Latino immigrant children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003 Mar;42(3):311-8.

Kendall J. Peterson G. A school-based mental health clinic for adolescent mothers. J of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurs 1996; 9(2):7-17.

Koppelman J. Children with mental disorders: making sense of their needs and the systems that help them. NHPF Issue Brief. 2004 Jun; (799):1-24.

Kubiszyn T. Integrating health and mental health services in schools: Psychologists collaborating with primary care providers. Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19(2):179-98.

Larson MJ, Miller K, Sharma S, Manderscheid R. Children’s mental health services in fee-for-service Medicaid. Health Care Financ Rev. 2004 Fall; 26(1):5-22.

Leaf JP, Alegria M, Cohen P, et al. Mental health service use in the community and schools: results from the Four-Community MECA Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996; 37(7):889-897.

Levy AJ, Land H. School-based interventions with depressed minority adolescents. Child Adolesc Soc Work J 1994; 11(1):21-35.

Lewinsohn PM, Clarke GN. Psychosocial treatments for adolescent depression. Clin Psychol Rev. 1999; 19(3):329-342.

Madrid PA, Grant R, Reilly MJ, Redlener NB. Challenges in meeting immediate emotional needs: short-term impact of a major disaster on children’s mental health: building resiliency in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Pediatrics. 2006 May; 117(5 pt 3):S448-53.

Masia CL, Klein RG, Storch EA, Corda B. School-based behavioral treatment for social anxiety disorder in adolescents: result of a pilot study. J of Am Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2001; 40(7):780-786.

Mason MJ, Wood TA. Clinical mental health training within a multidisciplinary school-based health clinic. J of Health & Social Policy 2000; 11(3):45-65.

Mishne JM. Dilemmas in provision of urban mental health services for latency age children. Child Adolesc Soc Work J 1993; 10(4):271-287.

MMWR Morb Mortality Wkly Rep . 2005 Oct 7; 54(39):985-9. Mental health in the United States: health care and well being of children with chronic emotional, behavioral, or developmental problems—United States, 2001.

Mufson L, Dorta KP, Wickramaratne P, Nomura Y, Olfson M, Weissman MN. A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy in depressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Jun; 61(6):577-84.

Nabors LA, Leff SS, Power TJ. Quality improvement activities and expanded school mental health services. Behav Modif. 2004 Jul; 28(4):596-616.

Newton-Logsdon G, Armstrong MI. School-based mental health services. Soc Work Educ 1993; 15(3):187-191.

Noam GC, Hermann CA. Where education and mental health meet: developmental prevention and early intervention in schools. Dev Psychopathol. 2002 Fall 14(4):861-75.

Pastore DR, Techow B. Adolescent school-based health care: a description of two sites in their 20th year of services. Mt Sinai J Med. 2004 May; 71(3):191-6.

Paternite CE. School-based mental health programs and services: overview and introduction to the special issue. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2005 Dec; 33(6):657-63.

Perkins HJ, Montford CR. The impact of violence in schools: a case study on the role of school-based health centers. Nurs Clin North Am. 2005 Dec; 40(4):671-9,ix.

Pfefferbaum B, Sconzo GM, Flynn BW, Kearns LJ, Doughty DE, Gurwitch RH, Nixon SJ, Nawaz S. Case finding and mental health services for children in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2003 Apr-Jun;30(2):215-27.

Policy Leadership Cadre for Mental Health in Schools. A resource and reference document containing guidelines, models, resources, and policy considerations. UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools, 2001. Accessed on the web at

Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health: A National Action Agenda. Department of Health and Human Services. September 2000. Available on the Worldwide web at

Rones M, Hoagwood K. School-Based Mental Health Services: A Research Review Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2000; 3(4):223-241.

Servaty-Seib HL, Peterson J, Spang D. Notifying individual students of a death loss: practical recommendations for schools and school counselors. Death Stud. 2003 Feb-Mar;27(2):167-86.

Silayan-go A. Youth to youth intervention. Integration. 1998 Spring;(55):26-7.

Slade EP. Effects of school-based mental health programs on mental health service use by adolescents at school and in the community. Ment Health Serv Res. 2002 Sep;4(3):151-66.

Slade EP. The relationship between school characteristics and the availability of mental health and related health services in middle and high schools in the United States. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2003 Oct-Dec;30(4):382-92.

Starr R (Ed). School-Based Health Center Mental Health Work Group. Final Report. New York State Department of Health School Health Program. 2001. Available on the worldwide web.

Stein BD, Jaycox LH, Kataoka SH, Wong M, Tu W, Elliott MN, Fink A. A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Aug 6;290(5):603-11.

Steinberg AG, Gadomski A, Wilson MD. Children’s Mental Health: Recommendations for research, practice and policy. LDI Issue Brief 5(7). April 2000.

Taras HL. School-based mental health services. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun; 113(6):1839-45.

Taylor L, Adelman HS. Mental health in schools: Promising directions for practice. Adolesc Med: State of the Art Reviews 1997; 7(2):303-337.

Teagle SE. Parental problem recognition and child mental health service use. Ment Health Serv Res. 2002 Dec;4(4):257-66.

Vernberg EM, Jacobs AK, Nyre JE, Puddy RW, Roberts MC. Innovative treatment for children with serious emotional disturbance: preliminary outcomes for a school-based intensive mental health program. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2004 Jun; 33(2):359-65.

Wassef A, Ingham D, Collins ML, Mason G. In search of effective programs to address students' emotional distress and behavioral problems. Part I: Defining the Problem. Adolescence 1995; 30(119):523-538.

Wassef A, Collins ML, Ingham D, Mason G. In search of effective programs to address students' emotional distress and behavioral problems. Part II: Critique of school- and community-based programs. Adolescence 1995; 30(120):757-777.

Weist MD, Lowie JA, Flaherty LT, Pruitt D. Collaboration among the education, mental health, and public health systems to promote youth mental health. Psychiatric Services. 52(10):1348-51.

Weist MD, Myers CP, Hastings E, Ghuman H, Han YL. Psychosocial functioning of youth receiving mental health services in the schools versus community mental health. Community Ment Health J 1999; 35(1):69-81.

Weist MD, Nabors LA, Myers CP, Armbruster P. Evaluation of expanded school mental health programs. Community Ment Health J 2000; 36(4):395-411.

Weist MD, Paskewitz DA, Warner BS, et al. Treatment outcome of school-based mental health services for urban teenagers. Community Ment Health J 1996; 32(2):149-57.

Weist MD, Proeshcer E, Prodente C, Ambrose MG, Waxman RP. Mental health, health, and education staff working together in schools. Child & Adolescent Psych. Clinics of N. Am, 2001; 10(1):33-43.

Werthamer-Larsson L. Methodological issues in school-based services research: Special Section: Mental health services research with children, adolescents, and their families. J Clin Child Psychol 1994; 23(2):121-132.

Young TL, Ireson C. Effectiveness of school-based telehealth care in urban and rural elementary schools. Pediatics. 2003 Nov; 112(5):1088-94.

Internet Resources

NIMH Brief notes on the mental health of children and adolescents. National Institute of Mental Health. Accessed at

Research highlights. Mental health care for youth. Who gets it? How much does it cost? Who pays? Where does the money go? RAND Health. Santa Monica, CA. 2002. Accessed at

SAMHSA’s National Mental Health Information Center

School Mental Health Project,, provides a comprehensive introduction to mental health services and programs located in schools.

Special Topics


Brown JG. Mandatory managed care: children’s access to Medicaid mental health services. US Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Inspector General. OEI-04-97-00344. January 2000.

Bundy AL, Wegener V. Maximizing Medicaid funding to support health and mental health services for school-age children and youth. Washington, DC: The Finance Project, 2000.

Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. Making sense of Medicaid for children with serious emotional disturbance. Washington, DC: Author, 1999.

Han SS, Weiss B. Sustainability of teacher implementation of school-based mental health programs. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2005 Dec; 33(6):665-79.

Insurance coverage of mental health and substance abuse services for children and adolescents: A consensus statement. Pediatrics 2000; 106(4):860-862.

National Assembly on School-Based Health Care. Partners in access: School-based health centers and Medicaid. Washington, DC: Author, 2001.

Sturm R. The costs of covering mental health and substance abuse care at the same level as medical care in private insurance plans. RAND 2001.


Abbott RD, O’Donnell J, Hawkins JD, Hill KG, Kosterman R, Catalano RF. Changing teaching practices to promote achievement and bonding to school. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1998; 68(4):542-52.

Aseltine RH Jr, DeMartino R. An outcome evaluation of the SOS Suicide Prevention Program. Am J Public Health. 2004 Mar; 94(3):446-51.

Eisen M, Palletto C, Bradner C. Problem behavior prevention and school-based health centers: Programs and prospects. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 1999.

Eggert LL, Thompson EA, Herting JR, et al. Prevention research program: Reconnecting at-risk youth. Special Issue: Mental health nursing 2000: Issues and challenges. Issues in Ment Health Nurs 1994; 15(2):107-135.

Greenberg MT, Domitrovich C, Bumbarger B. Preventing mental disorders in school-age children: A review of the effectiveness of prevention programs. Prevention Research Center for the Promotion of Human Development – Pennsylvania State University. July, 1999.

Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Kosterman R, Abbot R, Hill KG. Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Arch Pediatric Adolescent Med. 1999; 153(3):226-34.

Jones D, Dodge KA, Foster EM, Nix R; Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Early identification of children at risk for costly mental health service use. Prev Sci. 2002 Dec;3(4):247-56.

Merry S, McDowell H, Wild CJ, Bir J, Cunliffe R. A randomized pacebo-controlled trial of a school-based depression prevention program. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004 May; 43(5):538-47.

Noam GG, Hermann CA. Where education and mental health meet: developmental prevention and early intervention in schools. Dev Psychopathol. 2002 Fall;14(4):861-75.

Perry CL. Models for effective prevention. J Adolesc Health 1992; 13(5):355-363.

Prian N. Prevention of eating disorders: a review of outcome evaluation research. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2005; 42(3):172-7.

Roosa MW, Gensheimer LK, Ayers TS, et al. Development of a school-based prevention program for children in alcoholic families. J Primary Prev 1990; 11(2):119-141.

Witt JC, Vanderheyden A, Penton C. Prevention of common mental health problems among adolescents: National and local best practices in school-based health centers. Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society. 1999;151(12): 631-8.